Zeitschrift für musikalische Grundlagenforschung
Journal for Fundamental Music Research
Journal pour la Recherche Fondamentale de la Musique
von Oskár Elschek unter Mitarbeit von Albrecht Schneider und der redaktionellen
Zusammenarbeit mit Vladim¡r Zvara
Vladimír Karbusicky, Hans-Peter Reinecke und Uwe Seifert
Herausgeber: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut der Universität Hamburg, Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Bratislava,
Herstellung und Vertrieb: ASCO Art & Sciences, Bratislava, Slowakei
Redaktionsschluß: 20.Dezember 1993
With no. 2 of the first volume of our new journal Systematic musicology, we present most of the papers given at the symposium systematic musicology - today, which has been held at Moravany (Slovak Republic) from September 26th to 29th, 1993. While the content of this issue thus mainly covers lectures and discussions of the symposium as outlined in the programme (see Systematic Musicology 1/93, pp. 101/102, a few contributions have been included there as "last minute entries" not present in this volume (yet to be published later in this journal).
No. 1 of our journal was devoted to an assessment of the actual situation of systematic musicology in various countries. A number of coleagues did sent us statements answering to a questionnaire which aimed at finding out about main trends, objectives, and difficulties besides specific developments. The rusults obtained so far we believe will be much enhanced by the analytical studies contained in this volume which relate to theoretical and methodological issues as well as to historical background of systematic musicology as a scientific discipline. In several of the papers, the notion of system and systematic which of course have been widely used in philosophical and scientific thinking, are discussed in depth. It is quite clear, that though the division of histori-cal and systematic musicology as outlined by G. Adler in his famous paper of 1885 stil has some relevance, the foundations, goals, methods etc., especially of systematic musicology in several respects are different today as is the "system" of musicology as a whole compared to that of Adler. However, what still needs some clarification, on the one hand is the configuration of systematic subdisciplines according to objectives and methods, and on the other the relation of systematic research to historical studies. While there are obvious differences in methodology, there are also topics of common interest (e.g. sociocultural aspects of music, listening behaviour, the interplay of systematic and historical issues in music theory). Systematic musicology was established mainly because there are many aspects which are relevant to an understanding of music, its acoustical and psychophysical foundations, its functions as part of a social and cultural context, which are rarely covered by music historians yet certainly deserve scientific investigation. Research programmes outlined by, for example, Carl Stumpf, Charles Myers, Erich Moritz von Hornbostel around the turn of the century to some extent still seem to be relevant, though of course especially methods have changed since, and questions in certain cases did undergo refinement without being totally dismissed (e.g. "unidimensional" versus "multidimensional" models of pitch, which were discussed by Stumpf, among others, more than hundred years ago).
Most of the papers given at Moravany concerned problems of theory and method, conceptual issues, and historical development of systematic approaches to music. These contributions thus try to further our under-standing of scientific processes that had been discussed earlier, namely in a number of studies that appeared on the occasion of the centennial of Adlers Systematik (see especially the Gedenknschrift Guido Adler (=Musicologica Austriaca 6, Wien-Föhrenau 1986) and Entwicklungswege der Musikwissenschaft (=Musicologica Slovaca XI, Bratislava 1986)
We would like to thank all participants for their contributions, who sent their papers on discs in time and enabled us to publish them shortly after our symposium at Moravany. The engagement and enthusiasm we met with during the symposium and after it, has shown that the exponents of Systematic musicology are aware of the problems they are faced with. They came to the conclusion that something have to be done to contribute to a turn in the present development of systematic musicological research, that joint efforts can enable us to initiate remarkable changes in and outside of the field of our interest.
I would liketo thank Albrecht Schneider, taking part in a decisive manner in the preparation and realization of our symposium, as well as for the idea to build up a special working group concentrated to the main fields of systematic musicological research.
Last but not least I want to thank to my colleague František Zvara who took over summarizing the discussions following the round table and the papers, as well as making technical and editorial work on the issue. Miroslav Ruttkay has carried out editorial, layout, and printing preparations which have made possible to overcome all the works connected with this issue in his publishing house ASCO PUBLISHING in this very short time.
We hope that we have introduced with this edition the first steps in establishing a journal devoted completely and in full breadth to the field of systematic musicology. It should cover all disciplines and aspects, not only those directed to natural, medical and other scientific aspects, but also those concentrated on theoretical, human, social and philosophical views and methods of our branch of learning. Furthermore, interrelationship to historical as well as to ethnomusicological research should be supported permanently. Our goal is to integrate musicological research and concentrate our interest to basic musicological problems and not to divide it into particular and isolated fields of interest.
Critical reviews, open minded discussions and reports on current research are welcomed. We are interested to publish reviews of important publications, reports of meetings, and information about those projects running in other institutions and countries.
We intend to prepare from 1995 thematic issues, volumes, which have to concentrate interest on special fields, topics, to actual problems in a monothematic manner.
Colleagues are invited to return in a critical way to the content of both of the presented issues, because what is lacking in musicology in general is an open minded factual, objective oriented discussion about fundamental problems of music. Only this can make possible to come to new con-cepts, ideas and research projects transforming our field of research from the 19th to a modern science of the 20th century.
We world like also to thank to the Slovak Musicological Association, Zuzana Krajèiová for cooperation, the Slovak Music Union and the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic for supporting the symposium as well as the issue presented with this volume.
Hans-Peter Reinecke, Musikwissenschaft, Systematische Musikwissenschaft, Musikgeschichte - Versuch einer Bilanz
Jaroslav Jiránek, Innerdisziplinäre Beziehung der Musikwissenschaft
Franz Födermayr und Werner A. Deutsch, Systematische Musikwissenschaft aus der Sicht der Wiener Vergleichenden Musikwissenschaft
Ladislav Burlas, Stand der systematischen Musikwissenschaft in Mittel- und Ostmitteleuropa
Author: Albrecht Schneider
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Hamburg
Titel: Systematische Musikwissenschaft: Traditionen, Ansätze, Aufgaben
The term "systematic" as being part of "systematic musicology" relates to the notions of "system" and "systematics" which have been, and still are, discussed in philosophy as well as in the sciences. As is outlined in this article, the meaning of "systematic" at least within the philosophical and epistemological context almost always has been to organize a manifold of objects and/or phenomena according to certain principles. Thus, disciplines being labelled "systematic" are not just descriptive but aiming at theoretical knowledge which as a whole forms a "system". It was in the main this understanding of "systematic" which Helmholtz, Stumpf, v. Hornbostel, Myers, and others had in mind when the discipline of "systematic musicology" was established in the 19th century. However, the discipline comprises different approaches including phenomenology, experimental and laboratory work, statistical inference, etc. The present article reflects various types of "systematic musicology" mainly from a methodological point of view and reports the responses of 56 students of the Musicological Institute of the University of Hamburg which were asked to answer a questionnaire on the subject.
Author: Jobst P. Fricke
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität zu Köln
Title: Systematische oder Systemische Musikwissenschaft?
The above pair of terms would appear to offer a convenient vantage point for sketching the present state of system(at)ic musicology (SM), together with various visions of what the future may hold for the discipline. By combining systemic relationships derived from Maturana's "autopoiesis" and von Bertalanffy's "system characteristics", we can develop a theoretical background for musicology in general and SM in particular. If it is true that perception, thought, learning processes, consciousness and the use of signs are generated by biological mechanisms, then the nexus existing between physics and psychology should not at any moment be ignored. The existence of this naxus is demonstrated for the special case of music in the present article. Existential conditions are laid down by the laws of acoustics for all types of sound. Cognition results from the operation of biological mechanisms and is for this reason subject to its own special conditions. It thus becomes relevant to recognise in music - a product of man - structural variance in spite of organizational invariance. From this viewpoint, the definition of musical invariants presents itself as a task involving all the sub-disciplines of musicology. The form of listening to music which involves real-time decoding may accordingly be seen as a process of creative problem-solving and the generating of order.
Author: Uwe Seifert
Institution:Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Hamburg
Title: Systematische Musikwissenschaft als Grundlagenforschung der Musik. Ein wissenschaftstheoretisch orientierter Diskussionsbeitrag zur Situation der Systematischen Musikwissenschaft oder:
A sample of half-baked ideas
The state of systematic musicology depends on disciplinary classification, the used methodical and theoretic procedures, the scientific development in general, the so called "hyphen sciences" (e.g. music-theory etc.) and the state of musicological research. The importance of musicology as a historic, systematic, empiric and exact branch of learning. The notion of understanding, conceptualization and self-reflection in the area of comparison, topology, as a procedure of quantifying and measurements. Science and teaching, education of musicologists as an actual and dynamic system. Knowledge and different aspects of structure, mode, development, comparison and generalization. The way to reach objectivity and the requirements of basic musicological research in different concepts of musicology, taking into account psychology, ethnology, sociology, education, aesthetics e.g. Cognitive musicology and its supporting disciplines.
Author: Marc Lehman
Institution:Institute for Psychoacoustics and Electronic Music, University of Ghent
Titel: Systematic Musicology: Theory and Discipline of Musical Imagination
In this paper, the paradigm of systematic musicology is analysed from a historical and scientific perspective. It is argued that music cognition has long since been a central research topic in traditional systematic musicology. But with the recent development in physiological acoustics, self-organization theory, and computer science, we are now in a better position to reconsider a Gestalt theoretic foundation of music.
Author: Hanns-Werner Heister
Institution: Musikhochschule, Dresden
Titel: Systematisierung der Historie Zur Frage nach geschichtlichen Gesetzen
Historical musicology as explanation, understanding and as a narrative form of communication. General laws of music development and universals. Possibilities of systematic research of music. The interpretation of the individual and exceptional case in their relation to norms and the possibilities of their generalization. The directional character of the laws and their alienation. The tendency in the development of music based on the intention, the state of music material and the conditions of its use. Anthropological factors and their temporal and historic limitations. The relative unity of historical and logical (systematic) procedures in music research, and their metho-dological and theoretic consequences. The so called logic of music history.
Author: Bernd Schabbing
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Hamburg
Titel: "Historische" und "Systematische" Musikwissenschaft - zwei Worte für einen (Wissenschafts-) Geist ?
Historical and systematic musicology have - two parts of the same science - been disconnected for a long time, partly on purpose, partly without purpose. Guido Adler and Heinrich Husmann already demanded the connection of this two disciplines, especially because there are lots of common aspects. According to this, an organic contribution of single parts of both disciplines should substitute the inherent contribution of both disciplines in itself. Especially because of the subject of both disciplines has - only from another point of view - always been the same, this new organic connection is necessary and of an actual urgency.
Author: Margaret J. Kartomi
Institution: Department of Music, Monash University, Melbourne
Titel: Comparative Musicology and Music Aesthetics What has become of those sub-divisions of Adler's "Systematic Musicology" and "Historical Musicology" of 1885?
The aims of this paper are (i) briefly to compare the original meaning and usage of the term systematic musicology as proposed by Guido Adler in 1885 with its meaning and usage a century later; (ii) to home in on some of the recent developments of two selected aspects of Adler's original taxonomy of systematic musicology: (a) comparative musicology, taking the classification of musical instruments, and (b) aesthetics, especially ethnoaesthetics1 as examples; and (iii) to argue that, despite the frequently expressed suspicions of it since the 1950s, the sub-discipline of comparative musicology has never really died and indeed has begun to make a comeback during the last quarter of the twentieth century in a revitalised, more rigorous, methodical and substantial way than in its former heyday in the late nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries.
Author: Vladimir Karbusicky
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Hamburg
Titel:Über die Nützlichkeit systematischer Methodik bei historisch-vergleichenden Untersuchungen
Three case-studies show the behaviour of some music historians in relation to comparative procedures, the kernel part of systematic musicology and ethnomusi-cology. I. They don't accept them from the ideological point of view, II. they use comparison only as a sort of "outside" source criticism, without the use of the inner-critic of the text and music semantic aspects. III. In an other case they compare, without having in mind the possibility of falsification (according to Popper), so they come to a "short circuit". There is a lack of refined systematic methods. The author refers to: notion of series, theory of probabilities, the "Gestalt"-theory, the intentionality of perception, the dial of similarity, the systematic of sign-qualities, creating research constructs e.g.
Author: Oskár Elschek
Institution: Institut für Musikwissenschaft, Slowakische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bratislava
Titel: Systematische Musikwissenschaft und Persönlichkeitsgeschichte
Problems of systematic musicology are analyzed in the form of short monographies devoted to outstanding personalities of our field: Fr.-J. Fétis, E.M. v. Hornbostel, W. Danckert, Ch. Seeger, W. Wiora, C. Dahlhaus, and J. Kresánek. Their activity, research, and projects are connected with multidisciplinarity, which was of great importance for the development of systematic musicology as well as for musicology in general. Individual and team-work, encyclopaedies and science-theory in musicology are characterized. Concepts worked out by the musicologists in the 19th century, in the first decades of our century and the situation in the 80-90ties are compared. Systematic, historical and ethnomusicology have to be understood in their complementarity and not as contradictionary fields of research.
Author: Roland Eberlein
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Köln
Titel: Ein rekursives System als Ursache der Gestalt der tonalen Klangsyntax
The article describes processes which have been involved in the formation of the tonal syntax, and exemplifies them by musical developments in the Middle Ages. It is shown that regularities within "musical practice" produce auditory expectations and by this form the "musical perception", that these expectations cause the formulation of corresponding "rules of composition", and that these rules may have unexpected and far-reaching consequences regarding the musical practice. Further, the influence of "perceptual universals" and of the "intellectual history" on this circular system is demonstrated.
Author: Wolfgang Auhagen
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität zu Köln
Titel: Musikalische Satzstruktur und Tempoempfinden
An experiment is described in which listeners were asked to adjust several times the metronomic tempo of 8 compositions to those values that seemed to be the most appro-priates. The compositions were executed by a sequencer and a synthesizer. The subjective differences between two successive adjustments of the tempo of one composition were about 5 to 10 percent of the metronomic value. The intersubjective differences between the preferred tempos of one composition did not exceed the relation 1.6 : 1 for the most part of the examples. The melodic movement in relation to the perceived meter seems to be an important parameter determining the degree of conformity of the listeners' judgements.
Author: Ľubomír Chalupka
Institution: Lehrstuhl für Musikwissenschaft der Comenius Universität, Bratislava
Titel: Systematisch-theoretische Aspekte des Begriffes "Musikalisches Denken" im musikologischen Werk von Jozef Kresánek
Kresáneks' theory of musical thinking is based on principles of music theory, integrated with important aspects of the psychology, sociology and aesthetics of music. Experiences in the field of music history and ethnomusicology are part of his theoretical framework. Kresánek differentiates between laws and norms (rules). Laws are more or less anthropological constants, norms and rules are the result of specific musical developments in space and time. Music structure is characterized according to three levels: the thematic, tectonic and sonic. In every period of music history there is a prevalence or dominance of one or some of these levels, which contributes to their individuality and style. Kresáneks' theory is presented in his monographies about musical thinking (1977), tonality (1982) and tectonics (1993).
Author: Sachia Darzágín, Milan Rusko
Institution: Institute of Control Theory and Robotics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava
Titel: Experimental Systems for Sound Analysis
It may be very important for the musicologist, speech-researcher, or organologist, to have an user-friendly tool allowing a quick signal-analysis installed on his personal computer. Using a 16-bit PC sound card and our special software one can record the signal (to the hard disc), analyse it in the time domain (oscillogram), in the frequency domain (spectrogram, sonagram, log-spectrogram) and in the cepstral domain (pitch identification, homomorphic filtering and deconvolution of the signals). In this article we introduce such a system, "SOUNDY 1.0" for PC386 with a sound card, and a few examples of its application.
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