Zeitschrift für musikalische Grundlagenforschung
Journal for Fundamental Music Research
Journal pour la Recherche Fondamentale de la Musique
von Oskár Elschek unter Mitarbeit von Albrecht Schneider
Vladimír Karbusicky, Hans-Peter Reinecke und Uwe Seifert
Herausgeber: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut der Universität Hamburg, Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Bratislava
2. Dezember 1994
Herstellung und Vertrieb © 1994 ASCO Art & Science Bratislava Slowakei
Titelbild: Giseffo Zarlino Sopllimenti musicali (1588)
The 2nd volume of the journal Systematic Musicology appears atter the 2nd meeting of the Working Group on Systematic Musicology, which has taken place in October 1994 in Hamburg. It was possible to prepare the meeting in Hamburg only due to the selfless and sacrificial activity of Albrecht Schneider. Without his initiative it had been impossible to manifest that increasing interest in systematic musicological research among the colleagues, as it was documented in Hamburg.
The 1 st number of the second volume of our journal doesn't contain monothematically selected contributions, it rather mirrcrs the differentiated thematic, methodic, and musical interests, which characterize contemporary Systematic Musicology. Besides general programmatic and conceptual studies, we have published those, which inform about actual trends in computer musicology, experimental research, music theory, music sociology and a study which is directed to the question of the origin of music.
Iwould like to thank to all authors, which have sent their contributions for this issue of Systematic Musicology. I would like to thank especially to Albrecht Schneider who has taken over conceptual, editorial, and the diffieult language related work, which plays in a journal with internationai aspirations an irnportant role, and which is faced with special problems of terminology. That refers also to the sometimes difficult manner ot communication with the authors ot the contributions, the process of corrections and many other technical problems, which have caused the delay of the appearance ot this issue.
The next two numbers - the 2nd number of the 2nd volume and the 3rd volume tor 1995, which will be mostly covered by the papers presented at the meeting in Hamburg, will be available in March and August 1995.
Ihave last but not least to tha nk to the publishing house ASCO Art & Science - Bratislava, to Pro Slovakia and the Slovak Musicological Association, which have made possible to publish this volume.
Supplemented in a separate offprint you can find the content as well as the registers of the 1st volume.
Iwould like to take this occasion and to invite further colleagues to cooperate with the Systematic Musicology and to send their contributions, as well as reports, reviews, and to send review copies to the editor. We will start from the tollowing volume to enlarge the content of the journal by reviews, reports about institutional activities, information on meetings, and to open the journal for critical discussions and dialogues concerning the puhlished studies anrl materials.
Editor Oskár Elschek,
Author: ELSCHEK, Oskár
Institution: Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bratislava
Titel: Aktuelle Fragen der Musikalischen Grundlagenforschung (I) Fachbereiche, Wechselwirkungen, Definitionen und Inhalte
The present state of fundamental musicological research which more or less is identical with the field of systematic musicology is discussed. The situation as it has developed in the 80s is outlined and the main trends and changes which have taken place. Definitions of musicology, and the disciplinary framework are pointed out; subdisciplines are seen in their interrelationship and complementarity. Especially musical acoustics, organology, physiology of music (including the physiology of hearing and music making), psychology of music, musical aesthetics, philosophy of music, sociology of music, music theory musical graphics, interpretation of musical texts, music performance, and music education are characterized with respect to contemporary trends, goals, concepts of research and major results.
The question of relations among disciplines, their configuration and coherence according to subjects and methods is raised. The interdisciplinary structure is distinguished from a mere classification of disciplines which depends on the actual systematic of the fields of musicological research.
Author: Bernard BEL & Bernard VECCHIONE
Institution: GRTC, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, Centr de Recherche en Science de la Musique, Aix-en-Provence
The "paradigmatic revolution" (Kuhn) has influenced musicology in the last decades. It has given rise to new disciplines and research fields, e.g. cognitive musicology, music and AI, computation, new investigations connected with compositions, im rovisation, performance, perception and the respective methods. Relations have been established from this aspects between science and technique, philosophies of aesthetics, music ractice, cognition and computational musicology. Research results and references are summarized in the contribution.
Author: Peter Szöke
Titel: Ist das hinter dem Horizont der Tonkunst verborgene säkulare Rätsel des Ursprungs der Musik unlösbar?
The origin of music belongs to an often discussed problem of musicology. The European notion of music is determined by historical and cultural aspects. The author investigates three levels of the musical phenomenon: musicality as a manifestation of the physical world, the level ot the animals sound production, and that of the man in the process of socialization. The art and aesthetic aspect plays a decisive role in the live of music. The following aspects are examined: the vertical segmentation of the tone structure, the horizontal differentiation of time, tectonics, which are in the single levels characterized, especially the biological one. The most important art of the study is devoled to the sound production ot the birds, exemplified by musical transcriptions, structural analysis, in a rich selection of graphical and spectrographic representations. The laws of the acoustical and physical process is analyzed in their influence on musical and musical like phenomena.
Author: Albrecht Schneider - Andreas Beurmann
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universit„t Hamburg
Titel: Tonhöhe - Intervall - Distanz: Zur Wahrnehmung von Klängen mit inharmonischen Spektren
Experiments on the perception of sounds with inharmonic spectra are re orted. In these experiments, sounds synthesized with the spectrum of an "ideal xylophone" (eigenfrequencies of the free-free bar) on the one hand, and of two hammers clashing on the other, have been used to create a set of successive intervals which had to be identified by two groups ot 33 and 29 subjects (experiments-samples 1992 and 1993, respectively). Results clearly show that narrow intervals such as the minor and major second score much higher than do basic musical intervals, namely the octave and the fifth. As findings are very similar in both samples ambiguity of pitch perception and other effects observed are referred to spectral characteristics as well as to the envelope of the signals employed as stimuli. Besides statistical data and interpretation, the article discusses aspects of the subjets' cognitive strategy related to pich analysis of the sounds in question as to estimation of interval size of pairs of stimuli.
Authors: Rolf Bader - Brigitte Markuse
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Univesität Hamburg
Title: Perception and Analysing Methods of Groove in Popular Music
The rhythm (Groove) of western popular music can not be described in just one string of notes or rhytmic symbols; all the itneracting rhytms played by different instruments have to be included in the analysis. The instruments have different perceived beat-weights, that is, different strength to establish a meter. On a metrical level chosen by the listener exists an off-beat - an event in the tremporal middle between beats. If an instrument with a higher beat-weight which is played on the beats, an off-beatfeeling is produced. There is a qualitative difference in perceiving Grooves with higher and with lower "degrees of off-beat".
Finally, it seems to exist a relation between the perceived meters and the motor action of a listener, which he uses to perceive the rhythm. It is possible for a listener to move in different ways simulteanously and according to his motor actions perceive several meters at the same time.
Author: Mark Lindley
Institution: Cambridge MA
Examples of chromaticism from a period of 700 years are discussed in terms of a concept of "types of system" developed in Lindley and Turner-Smith, Mathematical models of musical scales (Bonn 1993). Each type is associated with a set of premisses as to how the relations amongst all the pitch classes in the chromatic scale (pitch-class intervals) have themselves been assumed to be inherently related. For instance, if there are consonant relations, is there a circle of 5ths or only a chain? If there are consonant triads, are they all regarded as equally euphonious or has it been assumed instead that there are inherent differences amongst them? Several such criteria are applied and it is argued that to be aware of them is conducive to intellectual clarity and historical sophistication in the analysis of chromatic music.
Author: Helmut Rösing
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Hamburg
Title: Konzertbesucher und musikalisches Bewußtsein
The relations between individuals, society, and the process of socializing are of decisive influence to music perception. Dimensions of taste (according to the differentiation of Pierre Bourdieu) and the class affiliation, are confronted with music behavior, music performance and musical consciousness. Case studies are analysed, which are related to popular music, black African music, art music and traditional concert situations, furthermore compared from the point of view of auditive behavior, music experience and music expectations.
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