Zeitschrift für musikalische Grundlagenforschung
Journal for Fundamental Music Research
Journal pour la Recherche Fondamentale de la Musique
von Oskár Elschek unter Mitarbeit von Albrecht Schneider
Vladimír Karbusicky, Hans-Peter Reinecke und Uwe Seifert
Herausgeber: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut der Universität Hamburg, Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Bratislava
Redaktionsschluß 25. Mai 1994
Herstellung und Vertrieb © 1994 ASCO Art & Science Bratislava Slowakei
Titelbild: Melogramm der Klarinette ”gajdica“
After the edition of thematically selected contributions in the previous volumes of the journal Systematic Musicology, devoted to general topics of theoretical, methodical character and taking into account the present state of research, in this volume are presented papers read at the 2. meeting of the Cooperative of Systematic Musicology 1994 in Hamburg.
The sound analysis became in musicology a central field of research, joint with different disciplines: as psychoacoustics, psychology of music, music theory, ethnomusicology, organology, historical music interpretation, music reception and many other problems, which can be investigated only with the help of sound analytical procedures. The methods are as diversified as the used analytical, technical and computer systems, applied in the projects. The methodical diversity is influenced by the research traditions in different countries, by central institutions and their preferred research concepts. The computer development in the last decade with the permanent changes in the hard- and software was so remarkable and substantially, that for musicology a set of new possibilities have been opened. We were able to start with new investigations touching the fundamental features of the music phenomena. Also the circle of those engaged in the new research technologies, working with new sound analytical procedures, was widened. Sound analysis became the most important research field in musicology where various interests and investigations are confronted and compared.
If music is really sound, and the essential qualities of music are manifested in the acoustical and auditive process, than this field of research will gain more and more importance.
The papers referring to the sound analytical problems, enables us to compare the applied technic, the gained results and the possibilities of evaluating and interpreting the very features of the sound phenomena of music.
The next volume of Systematic Musicology will present papers with music theoretical content. In the prepared volume for 1995 the new structure of the periodical will include reviews, reports, information and other materials in order to improve the actuality and quality of the journal.
Author: Albrecht Schneider
Institution: Institute of Musicology, University of Hamburg
Titel: Tone system, intonation, aesthetic experience: theoretical norms and empirical findings
Principles relevant to the construction of tone systems as well as psychophysical concepts such as scale, scale step, tone distance, tonal zone, and Klangbreite are discussed. Also, the concept of categorical perception, and the notions of class, category, and continuum are addressed in relation to intonation theory and practice. Data and findings of experiments based on different tone systems and tunings are reported which indicate that at least trained subjects are able both to distinguish between alternative versions of music rendered in different tone systems and tunings, and to recognize changes in perceptual parameters such as fusion and roughness caused by pitch shifts. Findings obtained are suited to question the ”strong” version of categorical perception of pitch closely connected with diatonic Stufenlehre. Moreover, empirical data indicate that subjects distinguish between syntactic and acoustic correctness of intonation patterns, and aesthetic enjoyment or pleasantness of music played in different tone systems/tunings.
Authors: Franz Födermayr & Werner A. Deutsch
Institution: Kommission für Schallforschung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien
Titel: Analytische Grundlagen zu einer Typologie des Jodelns
Features of a typology of yodelling have been demonstrated as being significant at three different musical examples from tribal (Solomon Islands), folk (Swiss) and popular music (J. Rodgers). The following parameters have been measured: the occurrence of chest and falsetto voice, the quality of falsetto, the change of register, vowels, and melody contour.
Authors: Michael Weber
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut der Uniwersität Wien
Titel: Towards Interpretation
The potential importance of musical realization of a score for the analysis of music – especially of the second half of the 20th century – is demonstrated by the means of sound spectrograph technique with the examples of Witold Lutosławski' s Symphony No. 3, György Ligeti's Étude 9 : Vertige for piano, and Karlheinz Essl' s Rudiments for four snare drums.
Author: Alexandra Hettergott
Institution: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut der Uniwersität Wien
Titel: Spektrale Visualisierung (Ausgewählter) musikalischer Strukturen mit kognitionswissenschaftlichen bezug
As can be seen in the example, the second movement of A.Weberns Symphonie op.21, the parts are different in texture not only auditorily but also visually. The different elements contrast within the auditory/visually scene because of the pecularities of each of these parts (and in a way: separation of foreground and background).
Tone series and intervals cognitively given by scale steps and several rather different terms (in case of intervals), are shown within the visual scenes given by spectrograms (S_TOOLS) of the respective parts (CODA, VARIATIONS I,VII,IV).
Webern composed the layout of the music score not only vertically (retrograde) but also horizontally (inversion) as mirrored by the imaginary symmetry axes. However, the spectrogram appears to reflect the multidimensionality of musical space rather than does the music score. Furthermore, the spectrograms show the texture of the movement as a whole (long-time spectrogram), as well as the structural pecularities of any of its parts (others). Accordingly, different techniques of the twelve–tone method such as mirror forms, canonic symmetry, and belonging symmetric axes, can clearly be shown within the visually depicted musical scenes.
Author: Andreas E. Beurmann
Institute: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Hamburg
Titel: Zur Akustik historischer Tasteninstrumente – computergestützte Analyse und Dokumentation
Numerous historical keyboard instruments from the 16–18th century in the Hasselburg collection – harpsichords, spinets, and pianofortes – are presented in connection with computeraided acoustical research. The instruments – tuned in the respective temperaments of their epoch and provenance – are examined from the view of their sound ideals, their spectrums, and their differenciated sound structures. Individual makers and cultural areas of instrument building in Italy, Spain, Flanders, Bohemia, France, and England are compared in respect to their sonorous qualities.
Authors: Daržágín Sachia - Milan Rusko
Institute: Institute of Control Theory and Robotics Slovak Academy of Sciences
Titel: Dynamic Programming Approach to Time Normalized Similarity Evaluation of Melodical Structures
In an effort to evaluate similarity of melodies several different mathematical models were tried. Some of them are based on Fourier analysis of the time function representing the melody (analysis of the frequency domain representation), others evaluate the similarity directly in the time domain using theory of functions. Both of these methods have certain problems with comparing two melodies of different length and different time-structure. Dynamic programming offers methods for nonlinear time-normalization, which are widely used in speech recognition. In our paper an experiment is described with using Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for some special tasks connected with similarity problem. The important role of distance matrix and its influence on the performance of the routine is shown. Automatic recognition of the parts of the compound melodical structure is discussed.
Author: István Pinter
Titel: Transcription versus Sound Spectroscopy in Analyzing Folk Music Performance
According to the problem connected with an exact auditory identification of different sound phenomena especially in folk music a method of sound analysis is described. The developed approach is described as an “intensity distribution on multiplied frequency - time matrix” algorithm. It allows a 100 times better frequency - time resolution than the used earlier methods. A method of computerized sound microscopy is tried. The method called VOILA is applied in the analysis of the repertory of the Hungarian folk fiddler László Füleky and is demonstrated in different analytical figures.
Author: János Pap
Titel: Hirtenpfeifen (akustische Analyse einer Idee von R. Wagner)
The performance possibilities of different musical instruments in their use in the 1st scene of the 3rd act of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (in the so called Hirtenreigen) are compared, taking into account their sound, construction and sound analytical procedures. The following instruments are evaluated and compared: the english-horn, the Tristan trumpet, the Tristan shawn, the Heckel-clarina, Heckel-piccolo and the Schunda-tárogató.
Author: Uwe Seifert
Institute: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut Universität Hamburg
Titel: Zur Lage der Psychomusikologie Ein Literaturbericht
In this article psychomusicology is defined as a branch of systematic musicology. In psychomusicology research on music theory is connected to research on music perception and cognition. Operational models - especially computer simulations and theoretical modeling - are the main methodological tools of explication in psychomusicology. Experimental research and computer modeling are viewed as complementary research strategies in psychomusicology. The importance of a general framework for experimental research and simulation studies based on the theory of recursive functions and model theory is further pointed out. An introductory and brief review of the main representational formalisms from artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology and linguistics as currently used in psychomusicology like first order logic, semantic networks, grammars, production systems an artificial neural networks is presented. Finally, the representational paradigm used in cognitive science is contrasted with the non-representational view of ecological realism as advocated by the school of J. J. Gibson. A bibliography on psychomusicology concludes the article.
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